索罗斯是怎样发迹的

2016-08-15 14:31:37

Jea Yu  2016年8月11日

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乔治•索罗斯拥有249亿美元的净资产,并且是索罗斯基金管理公司的创始人兼董事长。截止到2016年7月,他是福布斯富豪榜中全世界第23富有的人。他在1992年著名的做空英镑的举动为他赢得了超过10亿美元的利润并且使他获得了“击垮英格兰银行的人”的称号。他的量子基金在超过30年的时间里平均年收益超过33%。他进行的慈善活动获得了非常高的赞誉,而他的政治声明却饱受争议。本文将讲述乔治•索罗斯是如何发迹的。

早年时期

乔治•索罗斯于1930年8月12日出生在匈牙利的布达佩斯。他的犹太姓氏是Schwartz。他的父亲Tivadar在俄国大革命时期成为了一战战犯,之后成功逃离了俄罗斯并与在布达佩斯的家人团聚。索罗斯在纳粹占领时期经历了对匈牙利犹太人的不断迫害。他协助他的父亲伪造了数以千计的文件帮助同胞逃离匈牙利的大屠杀。这时他的家庭经常进入隐藏阶段,有时会分开。在这期间索罗斯学会了大量的生存技能。

华尔街崛起

1947年,索罗斯开始了伦敦经济学院的学习生涯。他的导师是创造了“开放社会”一词的哲学家Karl Popper,这一理念正好与他遭遇并厌恶的独裁统治相反。他的慈善学和哲学观点形成于这一时期。毕业四年后,索罗斯开始在伦敦银行从事财务职位。1956年,索罗斯移民到英国并在纽约梅伦银行获得了一个套利交易员职位。索罗斯在华尔街许多公司从事过交易员和分析师。转变出现在他1967年管理第一个离岸基金First Eagle Fund之后。这一成功使他在1969年推出了名为Double Eagle Fund的第二个基金。

量子基金

索罗斯和他的助手吉姆·罗杰斯在1973年离职并成立索罗斯基金管理公司。这是一个对冲基金,之后它又被重新名为索罗斯基金并最终在1979年成为了量子基金。该基金成立以来的回报率达到了3365%,而同期的标准普尔500指数的回报率为47%。1981年,量子基金增长到3.81亿美元,当时索罗斯的净资产据估计超过1亿美元。1981年索罗斯被评为“世界上最伟大的基金经理”,吉姆·罗杰斯同年从该公司辞职。索罗斯不能再进行匿名操作。他将量子基金的日常管理转包给其他几个基金经理。该基金1985年的回报率为122%使1986年管理的资产达到了15亿美元。

成长和扩张

索罗斯在1989年招募Stan Druckenmiller管理量子基金。到1993年,Stan Druckenmiller创造了40%的平均年回报。1992年著名的英镑做空使其盈利超过10万美元,此外还在东京证券交易所、瑞典克朗和意大利里拉的交易中产生了约10亿美元的利润。1993年,索罗斯成为首个年收入超过10亿的美国人,当时的量子基金年收益为61.5%。索罗斯在量子基金旗下创建了其他几个基金进行多元化投资,包括1993年建立的量子不动产基金和1994年创立的量子工业控股基金。类星体基金创立于1991年。在1997年增加量子新兴市场增长基金和Quota Fund后其管理的基金总数达到了六个。截止到2016年7月15日,这些基金全部在家庭管理办公室索罗斯基金管理公司旗下。据估计该公司管理的总资产超过280亿美元。

 

How Did George Soros Get Rich?

By Jea Yu | August 11, 2016 — 4:13 PM EDT

 

George Soros has a net worth of $24.9 billion and is the founder and chairman of Soros Fund Management LLC. He is ranked 23rd on the Forbes 400 list of the richest people in the world, as of July 2016. Soros amassed his fortune as one of the world's greatest speculators in the global financial markets. His famous bet against the British pound in 1992 generated more than $1 billion in profits in 24 hours and earned him the title of "the man who broke the Bank of England." His Quantum Fund earned a 33% annualized return for more than 30 years. His philanthropic activities have garnered much acclaim, while his political statements have sparked much controversy. This is how the legendary George Soros made his fortune.

The Early Years

George Soros was born in Budapest, Hungary, on Aug. 12, 1930. His Jewish birth surname was Schwartz. His father changed his last name to Soros in 1936 to avoid potential problems with their religion. His father, Tivadar, was a World War I prisoner during the Russian Revolution, who successfully escaped Russia to rejoin his family in Budapest. Soros experienced the growing persecution of Hungarian Jews during the Nazi occupation. He aided his father in forging thousands of documents to help his countrymen flee Hungary during the Holocaust. The family regularly went into periods of hiding, sometimes separately. Soros honed his survival skills during these times.

Wall Street Bound

By 1947, Soros enrolled in the London School of Economics. His mentor, Karl Popper, was a philosopher who coined the term "open society," which was the opposite of the dictatorships that he had lived through and loathed. His philanthropic and philosophical views were molded during this time. Four years after his graduation, Soros landed a financial position at a London bank. In 1956, Soros moved to the United States to procure a position as an arbitrage trader at New York-based firm F.M. Mayer. Soros worked at a number of Wall Street firms as a trader and analyst. The tipping point was when he managed his first offshore fund, the First Eagle Fund, at Arnold and S. Bleichroeder in 1967. His success led to him launch a second fund called the Double Eagle Fund in 1969.

The Quantum Fund

Soros and his assistant Jim Rogers, left the firm and formed Soros Fund Management in 1973. Structured as a hedge fund, it was renamed the Soros Fund and eventually became the Quantum Fund in 1979. The fund earned a 3,365% return since inception, compared to 47% for the Standard and Poor's 500 (S&P 500) index during the same period. By 1981, the Quantum fund had grown to $381 million, while Soros was estimated to be worth over $100 million. Jim Rogers resigned from the firm the same year that Institutional Investordubbed George Soros as "The World's Greatest Money Manager" in its June 1981 cover story. Soros could no longer be anonymous. He outsourced the day-to-day management of the Quantum fund to several different managers. The fund generated a 122% return in 1985, surpassing $1.5 billion in assets under management by 1986.

Growth and Expansion

Soros recruited Stan Druckenmiller to manage the Quantum fund in 1989. Druckenmiller proceeded to generate a 40% annual average return by 1993. The infamous short against the British pound trade in 1992 generated over $1 billion in profits, in addition to generating an estimated $1 billion in profits from trades on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, Swedish krona and Italian lira. Soros was estimated to have earned $650 million that year. In 1993, Soros was the first American to earn over $1 billion annually, when the Quantum Fund generated a 61.5% annual return. Soros diversified investments with the creation of several new funds under the Quantum umbrella, including the Quantum Realty Fund in 1993 and the Quantum Industrial Holdings Fund in 1994, which was managed by Druckenmiller. The Quasar Fund launched in 1991. Soros added the Quantum Emerging Growth Fund and the Quota Fund for a total of six funds by 1997. The funds are all part of Soros Fund Management LLC, which is a privately owned family office, as of July 15, 2016. The company's total assets under management are estimated at $28 billion.

 

本文翻译由兄弟财经提供

文章来源:http://www.investopedia.com/articles/insights/081116/how-did-george-soros-get-rich.asp

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